European Conference
European Models of Synergy between Teaching and Research in Higher Education
(C - D)
                                         ( By title, in alphabetical order )
Comments about University-Industry relationship: the case of Operations Management
Carlos Ochoa Laburu, Operations Management, Arantxa Tapia Otaegi, Systems and Automation Engineering
Escuela Universitaria Politécnica San Sebastián, Pais Vasco University, Spain
1)  Universities all over the world exist to fulfill three main goals: educate future leaders of their communities, 

promote the advance of knowledge in every academic field (research), propose an offer of continuous education to practitioners. I think that there is no need to document these three purposes, we can see them in the statements of the Mission of our institutions as well as in the introductory chapters in Universitary Laws in every country.

2)  Since the nineties there has been in Europe (EU) a reinforcement of the role that research must play in

universities and research is becoming an increasingly important task for university teachers. This is true in every academic field and also in Industrial Engineering and in Operations Management as a branch of it.

3)  Anyway, there is a controversy, an old one indeed but each time more important, about some issues related to

research and university-industry relationships. This relationship is important in many academic fields but especially in Industrial Engineering and then in Operations Management. 
The core of this controversy is that it seems to be a very faint relevance of university research results for industry and actually they are becoming two different worlds each time more divergent. What, if true, would be a dramatic paradox of important consequences.
The issues that come out of this controversy are:
  ·  What are the subjects relevant for industry in which academics should get involved? 
  ·  Is there any perverse effect of the methodologies that academics use for our re-search? Should we

     consider other type of methodologies up to now very underrated in our publications? 
  ·  How the results of research affect the undergraduate as well as postgraduate teaching?
It is interesting to remark that this debate is concentrated more in the work of University (supply push) that in the role of Industry (demand pull) or even the role of Public Administration (funding, incentives, etc.).

4)  The aim of this paper is to present the current state of this controversy and make some comments based on

our own experience about it much more than to give answers to all the issues and also to present what are the research topics currently under way in the Operations Management field.

The structure of the paper is:
   ·  The evolution of Operations Management: the milestones in the science and its in-corporation to the teaching
   ·  The debate about the research agendas in Operations Management and its relevance to industry
   ·  Our experience: what we have learned in our research and consultancy projects and how it has affected our

   ·  Conclusions
Alvarez Gil MªJ (1996). La Dirección de Operaciones: ¿Qué es? ¿De dónde viene? ¿A dónde va? Revista Europea de Dirección y Economía de la empresas Vol 5, nº3, 145-162 
Amoako-Gyampah K, Meredith J.R.(1989) The Operations Management Research Agenda: an Update. Journal of Operations Management, vol 8, nº 3
Eloranta E. K. (1998). Can the current knowledge and tools for production planning and control influence the contemporary regime of industrial evolution? Production Planning and Control, Vol9, Nº 7
Gómez Bezares F. (2005). “Una nota crítica sobre la investigación en finanzas”.Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de Empresas, nº 24,105-120
Hayes R.H (2000). Challenges posed to Operations Management by the “New Economy”. 1st World Conference POMS 2000 Proccedings, Sevilla Septiembre.
Hayes R.H. (2000). Toward a new architecture for Production and Operations Management. Production and Operations Management Journal Vol 9 nº2 International Journal of Operations and Production Management. vol 25, nº 12 (2005)
Leschke J.P. (1998) A new paradigm for teaching Introductory Production & Operations Management. Production & Operations Management Journal, vol 7, nº. 
Malhotra, M.K, Steel D.C, Grover, V; (1994) “Important Strategic and Tactical Manufac-turing issues in the 1990s”. Decision Sciences, vol 25, nº2
McCarthy D.J, Markides C, Mintzberg H. (2000): “View from the top: Henry Mintzberg on strategy and management”. Academy of management executive, vol 14, nº 3, 30-42
Meredith J. (2000). Hopes for the future of Operations Management, 1st World Conference POMS 2000 Proccedings, Sevilla Septiembre
Taj, S; Hormozi A. M; Mirshab B; (1996) Undergraduate Academic Teaching and Manu-facturing Industry Requirement: A Comparative Analysis. Interfaces, vol 26, nº 3
Cooperation between Tallinn University of Technology and leading power companies.
Juhan Valtin & Tiit Metusala, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia

Short overview of education in area of Electrical Power Engineering in TUT and main players in the area. Creation of the curriculum and cooperation during the study process. From educated specialist to qualified Engineer. Estonian qualification system. Training and continuing professional development and the roles of university and companies.

Correlation between Education – Scientific Research
Ioan Matlac, Ioan Todor  – Transylvania University of Brasov & Alexandru Matlac – Economic Acadamy of Sciences, Bucharest, Romania
The correlation between education and scientific research represents an actual and future demand of education which increase the efficiency of education, the weight of scientific research activity of the teaching stuff and leads to student formation for and through research. Only by a harmonious correlation between the two activities, didactic and research, the superior education institutions will coach specialists with specialty knowledge within an integrated concept about world, owners of algorithm and necessary skills to solve specialty problems, capable to contribute to technical-scientific progress.
The universitary scientific creation generated by the didactic activity becomes reality, only if the teaching stuff is connected to the specialty field, is enthusiastic and perseverant in work, can focus, has imagination, intuition, courage and independence in spirit. 
The paper presents the main demands for correlating the didactic activity with the scientific research: establishing of research themes in accordance with the specialty field of the teaching stuff; a corresponding relation between didactic activity and scientific research activity; establishment and development in superior education institutes of excellence research units where research teams will work, elaborate and solve projects with major objectives for society; the harmonious joining of individual research with team research, so as the creation potential to increase and turn into reality the models elaborated at consciousness level.; cooperation to solve complex projects, with universities from our country and from abroad, with internal and international research institutes, with native and companies from abroad.

1. Dumitrache, I., Scientific Basis with Multiples Utilities, in: Bulletin CNPST nr.3,sept.1996.
2. Kapiţa, P.L., Experiment, Theory, Practice, Editura politică, Bucureşti, 1981.
3. Matlac,I., Correlation of didactical activity with scientific research, in: Revista Forum, nr.5, 1990.
4. Petrescu,I., Treatise of University Management, Editura Libris, Braşov, 1998.
5. Selye, H., From Dream to Discovery, Editura medicală, Bucureşti, 1968.
6. Simionescu, C., Thoughts, Editura Junimea Iaşi, 1983.
7. Smith,B., Brown, S.. Research, Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Kogan page, London, 1995.
Designing the Curriculum - Transmitting Research Based Academic Knowledge
Silvia Fat & Crenguta Oprea,  Department for Teacher's Training, Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education, University of Bucharest, Romania

In recent years there has been considerable discussion on the new approaches to the relationship between research activity, teaching and professional practice of students, including structural tensions between them. 
Curriculum development design and delivery is where the teaching/research/practice link is implemented. This is where it impacts on the end-users, the students. The curriculum is seen as a product of different aspects, including supporting student learning out of class; changing external quality requirements; theories of student learning; available resources, including time. Actually, curriculum means: diagnosis of needs, formulation of objectives, selection and organization of content, construction of learning experiences, and evaluation. 
The processes of effective teaching and learning are closely related to the processes of effective research and professional practice. The academic studies offer students the chance to learn within a research and a professional practice environment stimulating creation of knowledge. The predominant perspective in education today is constructivism, which is based on the notion that learners actively construct their own knowledge on the basis of prior experiences and knowledge.
The research implies knowledge in practical situations and using a knowledge base to derive solutions to new problems, rather the internalising world of knowledge itself. Experience of research enables teacher to develop curricula which are informed by knowledge of their disciplines, often drawing on outcomes of their own research.
For learning to take place, reflection is crucial. It is the link between research and practice and between experience and practice. It is important the ability to be reflective in the midst of action and active in the midst of reflection, developing the capacity for reflexive learning from experience and a rigorous approach to making sense of experience. 
Research-based courses are intended to engage students in real research projects that ask lab or field-based research questions and whose outcome is not known in advance by the teacher or the student. These courses implies: a guide to the planning process, including guideline questions, skill-building activities, assessment techniques for finding out how students are doing, resources such as peer evaluation guides.
Curriculum design and delivery, teaching materials, and approaches to teaching, learning and assessment, can improve the experience and the capabilities of students. For designing a curriculum that is research based, it is necessary to consider: a critical engagement of student conceiving research literature, understanding of the relevance of research in the development of disciplines, the existence of research-process and problem-based methods of learning, performing research skills and ethics taught and practiced, aspects of analysis and synthesis data, testing validity. 
It is always hard to measure the impact of innovative teaching on student performance. It is useful comparing, for instance, student performance and experience in conventionally taught courses and in professional practice and research-based learning ones. 
The faculty views education in very broad terms, concerned with all systematic attempts to provide an appropriate environment for learning and development. Teachers also meet the needs of those concerned with learning and development in places other than schools: health, business, nursing, social work, industrial training, commerce, the law, public service, professional associations, so on. 
We can analyse a few dimensions of professional practice of students, like:
1. Practical activities are aligned with the learning outcomes? 
2. Learning activities experienced are perceived by the students as enjoyable/effective?
3. Specific skills (e.g. team work, group work, data analysis) are acquired during these activities, 

    practiced and assessed?
3. Extent of effort or engagement put into. 
4. Improvement of understanding of the subject.
Opportunities offered by research and practice of students: 
These opportunities include experiential active learning such as collective decision making on educational issues; field-based learning such as internships; peer instruction; and structured group experiences such as community service, international study. Practice and research help students develop coherent values system, because learning communities are committed to ethical standards. Preparing for future career, keeping information up to date, both of them develop problem solving ability, group working skills, creativity, and time management. The students also perceived benefits for future employment from their participation in research and practice. In the same time, we can provide through research and practice high expectations for student learning, like academic achievement and social success. At a macro level, practice of students builds supportive and inclusive communities, encouraging debate.
To gain accreditation teachers must demonstrate how their practice is informed by values including: recognition of individual differences, commitment to scholarship, practising equal opportunities, and continued reflection on professional practice. Effective student practice is the key to student achievement.
Different ways to develop connection between teaching, practice and research: gathering data and integrating results of research and practice into the curriculum; developing the curriculum to bring out the way the core concepts, knowledge and practices of the discipline have developed through research; providing training in relevant research/skills/knowledge, perhaps using the students' own social world in the university.
In constructing links between teaching, research and practice, the discipline is an important mediator. We notice recently the increase of the importance of holistic, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approach. The element they have in common is the act of learning, research is a process of learning or discovery, while teaching produce the act of learning.
Just as research can no longer be seen as simply discovering or creating knowledge,
and teaching is more than simply transmission of what is already known, there are several different relationships between research and teaching. Ron Griffiths provides an interesting distinction between: 

1. Research-led: the curriculum is structured around subject content;
2. Research-orientated: the curriculum places emphasis as much on understanding the processes by which

   knowledge is produced; 
3. Research-based: the curriculum is largely designed around inquiry based activities; 
4. Research-informed: providing data for teaching and learning processes. 
The curriculum, as a vehicle for professional development and school reform, exploits the potential synergies between research, professional practice and student learning. There are opportunities to promote alternative content and methods because academic autonomy often gives individual teachers opportunities to do things differently in their own classrooms, especially in decentralised systems. 
Explicitly relationship between teaching, professional practice and research in the curriculum has been little discussed in formal higher education literature. Our opinion is that the linkage needs to be a much more pervasive one.

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